Oxidative Stress and the Thromboxane Receptor–A Central Pivot in the Production of Neurofibrillary Tangles and Amyloid-beta

Oxidative Stress and the Thromboxane Receptor–A Central Pivot in the Production of Neurofibrillary Tangles and Amyloid-beta

By Ralph Sanchez, MTCM, CNS, D.Hom.

New research published Oct. 13 by the journal Neurobiology of Aging revealed that the free radicals produced during oxidative stress bind to a protein receptor in the brain designated as “the Thromboxane Receptor A2 (TP)”. The study, “Modulation of AD Neuropathology and Memory Impairments by the Isoprostane F2α Is Mediated by the Thromboxane Receptor” demonstrated that oxygen free radicals actually bind to TP, and transmit signals to neuronal cells to increase the production of amyloid beta, and Neurofibrillary Tangles (abnormal phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau), the two major pathological lesions associated with Alzheimer’s disease. See illustration just below.

TREM2 gene mutation raises the risk of Alzheimer’s disease

TREM2 gene mutation raises the risk of Alzheimer’s disease

By Ralph Sanchez, MTCM, CNS, D.Hom.

Recently (11/13), a rare variant of the TREM2 gene, designated as R47H, was shown to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Individuals with the variant may be up to 3 to 5 times more likely to develop Late Onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). This susceptibility to LOAD in R47H genotypes, is similar to that conferred by the ApoE4 gene.

The TREM2 gene is involved in immune regulatory processes in the brain and the R47H mutation impairs the gene’s ability to contain inflammation. One of the roles of the TREM2 gene is to aid the brain in efficiently eliminating beta amyloid; the toxic protein that forms plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

PREMIUM CONTENT: Blueberry Polyphenols Protect the Brain from the Degenerative Processes Associated with Brain Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

PREMIUM CONTENT: Blueberry Polyphenols Protect the Brain from the Degenerative Processes Associated with Brain Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

The study of plant and fruit polyphenols, a rich source of dietary antioxidants, represents one of the most promising areas of research in the field of anti-aging, and the prevention of degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Recent and ongoing research indicates that polyphenols present in berries and other fruits and vegetables provide protective and supportive nourishment to critical structures (i.e. hippocampus) in the brain responsible for learning, and memory formation and retention.

The Alzheimer’s Gene Puzzle – The ApoE4 Variant As A Risk Factor

The Alzheimer’s Gene Puzzle – The ApoE4 Variant As A Risk Factor

Genetic risk factors to Late Onset Alzheimer’s Disease (LOAD) are significant. A recent study of nearly 12,000 Swedish twin pairs, age 65 and older, determined that 58% to 79% of Alzheimer’s risk is genetic (1). This study showed that in male identical twins, when one brother had Alzheimer’s disease, the other developed the disease 45% of the time. In female identical twins, when one sister had Alzheimer’s disease, the other developed the disease 60% of the time. While this study did not delve into specific gene influences in LOAD, numerous studies have identified Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), as a prominent genetic risk factor for LOAD. About 25% of the population has one copy of the ApoE4 gene and individuals with the the ApoE4 gene are estimated to make up approximately 40%-80% of the Alzheimer’s disease population. (2)

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